A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a
combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet
Link to the Report
1 Institute of Health and Environmental Research, Kensington Park, SA, Australia.
2 Health and the Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Bedford
Park, SA, Australia.
3 Verity Farms, Maurice, Iowa, USA.
4 Ana-Tech, Monroe, Wisconsin, USA.
5 Sioux Center Veterinary Clinic, Sioux Center, Iowa, USA.
6 School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
* Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com.
** Present: Robinson Veterinary Services PC, Sioux Centre, Iowa, USA.
A significant number of genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved to enter
human food and animal feed since 1996, including crops containing several GM genes
'stacked' into the one plant. We randomised and fed isowean pigs (N=168) either a mixed
GM soy and GM corn (maize) diet (N=84) or an equivalent non-GM diet (N=84) in a longterm
toxicology study of 22.7 weeks (the normal lifespan of a commercial pig from
weaning to slaughter). Equal numbers of male and female pigs were present in each
group. The GM corn contained double and triple-stacked varieties. Feed intake, weight
gain, mortality and blood biochemistry were measured. Organ weights and pathology
were determined post-mortem. There were no differences between pigs fed the GM and
non-GM diets for feed intake, weight gain, mortality, and routine blood biochemistry
measurements. The GM diet was associated with gastric and uterine differences in pigs.
GM-fed pigs had uteri that were 25% heavier than non-GM fed pigs (p=0.025). GM-fed
pigs had a higher rate of severe stomach inflammation with a rate of 32% of GM-fed pigs
compared to 12% of non-GM-fed pigs (p=0.004). The severe stomach inflammation was
worse in GM-fed males compared to non-GM fed males by a factor of 4.0 (p=0.041), and
GM-fed females compared to non-GM fed females by a factor of 2.2 (p=0.034).
Key words: GMO, GM corn, GM soy, GM animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation,
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